Dry cleaners may use a variety of cleaning methods, all of which are subject to environmental regulations. Many dry cleaners use a solvent called perchloroethylene (perc). Perc is a hazardous air pollutant, or HAP. Perc, like other dry cleaning methods, can cause health problems. Alternatives to perc include silicone-based solvents, petroleum-based solvents, wet cleaning and the use of carbon dioxide in the cleaning process. The following table provides information on these alternatives.
|Damage or wear on garments||Environmental characteristics||Safety characteristics|
|Silicone-based solvent||Light to moderate wear||Appears environmentally safe||Has not been tested for health effects over long time span|
|Petroleum-based solvent||Light to moderate wear||Less toxic than perc||May be a fire hazard|
|Wet cleaning||Moderate to severe wear||Large amounts of contaminated water||Comes with fewer safety hazards than perc|
|Carbon dioxide||Light wear||Non-toxic||Requires high-pressure operation|
Perc dry cleaners are regulated to ensure proper disposal of waste and to minimize the amount of solvent released into the air. If a dry cleaner uses enough solvent, petroleum-based dry cleaners may be regulated for air emissions and for proper disposal of waste. Wet cleaning may be regulated because of the large quantity of water used and disposed. All processes may be regulated if pollutants go down the drain.
Air Pollution Regulations
Perc dry cleaners must have certain types of equipment, check for leaks, keep the equipment running properly and record their maintenance activities. Though it is rare, a perc dry cleaner may need a permit if it generates enough air pollution. Various groups have written publications and provided ways to document the requirements.
- Federal air pollution regulation for perc dry cleaning (40 C.F.R. Part 63 Subpart M)
- EPA website regarding rules and implementations for perc dry cleaners
- Dry Cleaning Compliance Calendar - PUB1310
- Dry Cleaner Notification of Compliance Status MO 780-1987
- Amended EPA regulations for perchloroethylene dry cleaners
- Dry Cleaners and The Clean Air Act - PUB2201
- Alternatives to Perchloroethylene for dry cleaning businesses - Toxics Use Reduction Institute at the University of Massachusetts Lowell
Petroleum Based Solvents Used for Dry Cleaning
Federal regulation 40 C.F.R. Part 60 Subpart JJJ regulates facilities with total dryer capacity greater than 84 pounds where the equipment was constructed or modified after Dec. 14, 1982.
Small Quantity Generators
Dry cleaners that are registered with the department as a small quantity generator of hazardous waste are required to file the Generator’s Hazardous Waste Summary Report MO 780-1097 each year. The report will cover from July 1 through the following June 30 and is due by Aug. 14.
Brownfields/ Voluntary Cleanup Program
If you have a release from a drycleaner that impacts the environment and you wish to address/cleanup the contamination, the department's Brownfields/ Voluntary Cleanup Program can provide oversight on the investigation and cleanup. For more information, visit Missouri Brownfields.