Used oil is defined as petroleum-derived and synthetic oils which have been spilled into the environment or used for (1) Lubrication/cutting oil; (2) Heat transfer; (3) Hydraulic power or (4) Insulation in dielectric transformers. The definition of used oil excludes used petroleum-derived or synthetic oils which have been used as solvents. (Note: Used ethylene glycol is not regulated as used oil under 10 CSR 25.)
The improper disposal of used oil needlessly damages ground and surface water and wastes a valuable renewable resource, making us more dependent on imported oil. Used oil can be re-refined for use as a lubricant or burned as a fuel in industrial furnaces, cement kilns or other burners.
The Missouri Department of Natural Resources encourages used oil recycling. However, some materials are not suited for recycling and must be disposed. This technical bulletin describes some of the management standards for disposing of used oil and used oil contaminated material under 10 CSR 25-11.279, which became effective on Aug. 28, 1994.
Used Oil-Contaminated Materials
Used oil contaminated materials are materials from which the used oil has been properly drained or removed to the extent possible so that there are no visible signs of free-flowing oil in or on the material. Such materials are not regulated as used oil. Instead, if oil-contaminated materials are non-hazardous, they are managed as solid waste in accordance with solid waste laws and regulations. The department retains the authority to require special waste approval in instances where the disposal of oil-contaminated materials may potentially create operational or environmental concerns at a sanitary landfill.
Used oil that is drained or removed from oil-contaminated waste is managed as used oil. If oil contaminated materials are burned for energy recovery, they are regulated as used oil.
Spent Oil Filters
Oil filters that have been drained may be sent to a sanitary landfill for disposal. Filters should be hot-drained for at least 12 hours. Hot-drained means that the oil filter is drained near engine operating temperatures. An effective method for properly draining the filter is to puncture the anti-drain back valve or the filter dome. Crushing, dismantling or other methods to facilitate hot-draining can also be used.
The Department of Natural Resources encourages generators to separate and recycle the recyclable elements of the oil filter, such as the canister, gasket and filter paper. The used oil removed from oil filters must be properly collected and managed.
Used oil destined for recycling is no longer considered a state hazardous waste. Manifests are no longer required for shipments of used oil that is to be recycled.
Used oil that is to be disposed of rather than recycled must be managed according to existing hazardous waste management requirements. This includes on-site storage, manifesting, transportation and disposal. Used oil that is intended for disposal or cannot be recycled is assigned the Missouri waste code number D098.
Low Concentration Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Used Oil
Low concentration PCB used oil is any used oil that contains equal to or greater than two parts per million (2 ppm) PCBs but less than 50 parts per million (50 ppm) PCBs, provided the used oil is not PCB material as defined in 10 CSR 25-13.010.
Low level PCB used oil intended for recycling is managed according to 10 CSR 25-11.279. The generator must use Missouri waste code D096 on any shipment record or manifest for low concentration PCB used oil that cannot be or is not intended to be recycled.
Used oil shall not be disposed of into the environment or cause a public nuisance. All used oil is prohibited from disposal in a solid waste disposal area. Used oil cannot be used as a dust suppressant on roads, parking lots, driveways or similar surfaces.