PUB595 - Definitions

Department of Natural Resources fact sheet
Department of Natural Resources Director: Carol S. Comer


Applicable requirements -- Neither the state nor the federal operating permit program contains extensive substantive requirements of its own. Both serve as vehicles for identifying all requirements applicable to the source. These requirements can include, but are not limited to, compliance, record-keeping, reporting, emission controls, emission limits, work practices, operating hours, and other matters stemming from federal and state air laws and regulations, and permits issued to allow construction or modification of the facility.

Area source -- Any stationary source that is not a major source.

Best Available Control Technology (BACT) -- That pollution control method that is recognized as the one removing the greatest amount of air pollutants for a particular industry or process. Cost is considered in requiring BACT.

Biosolids -- Organic fertilizer or soil amendments produced by the treatment of domestic wastewater. Biosolids consist primarily of dead microbes and other organic matters. Untreated sludge or sludge that does not conform to related pollutants and pathogen treatment requirements are not considered biosolids.

Closure -- The act of securing a waste management facility in compliance with applicable requirements.

Criteria pollutant -- Any air pollutant for which EPA has established a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS): carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulates and sulfur oxides. Criteria pollutants are measured in air quality control regions to determine whether the area meets or does not meet the federal air quality standard.

De minimis level -- The threshold level of emissions where regulations apply.

Discharge to state waters -- Release of pollution from a ditch, pipe or other conveyance to surface waters (lake, stream, creek, river or tidal wetland).

Domestic wastewater -- Wastewater from restrooms, sanitary conveniences of residences, cities, mobile home parks, subdivisions, restaurants, rest homes, resorts, motels, factories, stores, and other commercial businesses. It also includes industrial contributions when domestic and industrial wastewater are combined in a city sewer system.

Emission unit -- Any part or activity of an installation that emits or has the potential to emit any regulated air pollutant.

Fugitive emissions -- Emissions, which according to good engineering practice could not pass through a stack, chimney, vent or other functionally equivalent opening.

General Permit -- A set of conditions that can be standardized for a number of facilities; use of general permits where possible eliminates individualized permits for similar situations and is cheaper and less burdensome administratively than individual permits.

Grandfathered -- This applies to air pollution sources only. A facility that was in existence before May 13, 1982.

Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) -- One of 188 substances and compounds for which EPA is establishing Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. A major source of HAPs is considered one that emits 10 tons per year of a single HAP or 25 tons per year of multiple HAPs.

Hazardous waste -- Specific substances listed by EPA and any other substance that is corrosive, ignitable, reactive or toxic.

Initial Assistance Visit (IAV) -- This is an onsite visit by department staff with appropriate representative(s) of a facility for newly issued permits, or for those facilities that have never had a visit or inspection from DNR before. The IAV is intended to improve understanding of the permit and environmental requirements, to enhance environmental compliance with the regulations that apply to the permittee's unique operations, and to provide resources for assistance.

Installation -- All source operations, including activities that result in fugitive emissions, that belong to the same industrial grouping (that have the same two (2)-digit code as described in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987) and any marine vessels while docked at the installation, located on one (1) or more contiguous or adjacent properties and under the control of the same person (or persons under common control).

Land application -- The incorporation of wastewater or sludge into the soil to either condition the soil or fertilize crops or vegetation grown in the soil.

Like-kind -- Refers to equipment that is essentially identical to or performs mechanically the same function as the equipment being replaced. The new equipment cannot cause any appreciable change in the quality or nature of the emissions of any air contaminant, or result in any increase in the potential to emit or the effect on air quality.

Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER) -- The air emission rate that is the lowest possible for a type of facility for a specific pollutant; required of air pollution sources in air quality nonattainment areas.

Major source -- Any source defined as major under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration program; in a nonattainment area; or all other sources not meeting the definition of PSD or nonattainment area who emit 100 tons per year of a regulated pollutant. For sources subject to federal MACT rules, a major source is one that emits 10 tons per year of a single hazardous air pollutant or 25 tons per year of any combination of hazardous air pollutants.

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) -- The maximum degree of reduction in air pollution for new and existing sources, taking into consideration cost, non-air quality health and environmental impacts, and energy requirements.

Named installations -- A list of installations found in 10 CSR 10-6.020 (3)(A) and in Table II of this document. This list is used in the air construction and operating permit rules to identify types of sources of air pollution that must include fugitive emissions when determining the potential to emit.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) -- Maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants that EPA may reasonably anticipate pose a danger to public health or welfare. When violated, the standards cause an area to be designated a nonattainment area.

National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) -- Standards for asbestos, benzene, beryllium, inorganic arsenic, mercury, radionuclides, and vinyl chloride.

New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) -- Technology-based limits on air pollutants from new and modified sources.

Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) -- Oxides of nitrogenand is defined as the sum of the concentrations of NO2  and NO, where NO2 means nitrogen dioxide and NO means nitrogenoxide.

Nonattainment area  -- A geographic area that violates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

Pilot plants -- Installations or emission units that are of new type or design which will serve as a trial unit for experimentation or testing and not production.

Potential to emit (PTE) -- The emission rate of any air pollutant at maximum design capacity. Annual potential is based on the maximum annual-rated capacity of the installation assuming continuous year-round operation. Federally enforceable permit conditions on the type of materials combusted or processed, operating rates, hours of operation or the application of air pollution control equipment must be used in determining the PTE.

Pretreatment -- Specialized industrial wastewater treatment, performed at the source, that makes the wastewater suitable for discharge to a public sewage system.

Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) -- An air pollution permitting program intended to ensure that air quality does not diminish in attainment areas.

Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW) -- A sewage treatment works, normally for treatment of sanitary sewage, owned by state government, local government, utility authority or community.

Radon -- a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas that has been found in buildings, homes, schools, and workplace. It comes from the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock, and water.

Septage -- The biodegradable waste from septic tanks and similar treatment works. Septage includes the sediment, water, and grease and scum pumped from a septic tank.

Site-specific permit -- An operation permit that is developed with limitations based on a case-by-case review of site specific conditions.

Sludge -- Solid, semi-solid or liquid residue removed during the treatment of domestic wastewater.

Sludge lagoon -- An earthen basin that receives only sludge that has been removed from a wastewater treatment facility. It does not include wastewater treatment lagoons or sludge treatment units that are a part of a mechanical treatment.

State Implementation Plan (SIP) -- A plan through which a state institutes air quality protection measures that meet federal criteria. When approved by EPA, the state is delegated federal authority for air quality regulation.

Stationary source -- An air pollution source permanently located in a single location.

Stormwater -- That portion of rainfall that does not infiltrate into the soil or evaporate.

Temporary installation -- An installation or air emission unit which operates or emits pollutants for less than two years.

Volatileorganic compound (VOC) --  According to the Clean Air Act, VOC means any compound of carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, and ammonium carbonate, that participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions to produce ozone. A list of exempt compounds is found in 10 CSR 10-6-0.020 Definitions and Common Reference Tables.

Waste tire -- A tire that is no longer suitable for its intended purpose because of wear, damage or defect.

Wetlands -- Areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, under normal circumstances, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for like in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas.