Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations
In just the past 20 years, there has been dramatic change in animal agricultural production in Missouri and the United States. These changes have included a significant increase in the overall size of individual operations, an increase in the number of animals raised per operation and a shift towards raising poultry and certain livestock within production barns. Concentrated animal feeding operations, frequently referred to as CAFOs, are large animal agricultural facilities that raise a specific number of animals in production barns or confinement pens.
The development and implementation of technology along with specialized production systems over the years has led to remarkable production efficiencies in raising animals, and has given farmers the capability of achieving precise control and management of animal manure and other farm- based nutrients as a fertilizer source on farm land.
Modern agricultural systems, including CAFOs, can help reduce the overall environmental impact of livestock and poultry production facilities. New technologies and modern waste-management systems help ensure animal waste is properly managed, providing a safe, reliable fertilizer source for farming operations. Proper waste management protects the environment and ultimately makes a farm more productive.
Missouri's CAFO laws and regulations are designed to minimize these risks and are important for the long term protection of the environment. Laws and regulations are also important to preserve and maintain a strong and profitable agricultural industry for generations to come. Protecting the environment and the agricultural industry is a shared responsibility and doing so may have a positive impact on the environment, our food supply and local and state economies.
At the state level, water quality is protected through the department’s permit application and approval process. Water pollution construction and operating permits are a requirement for all size and types of CAFOs. These permits typically have a list of very specific and stringent requirements to follow and operations are expected to keep detailed records of farm related activities and submit them to the state agency for review each year. In addition, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources has developed stringent state technical standards that CAFOs must follow and relate to the handling and land application of animal manure.
Senate Bill 391 was signed into law by the Governor on May 31, 2019 and modified state provisions related to agricultural operations. Some of these changes affect regulated CAFOs:
- No construction on a new or expanded facility shall commence until the Department has issued an operating permit to the owner or operator of such facility .
- Notification of the proposed new or expanded CAFO must be provided to all neighbors within three times the buffer distance (was previously one and one-half times). Notice must be provided to all neighbors within 9,000 feet of a Class IA CAFO, within 6,000 feet of a Class IB CAFO, and within 3,000 feet of a Class IC CAFO.
- All liquified manure from a CAFO that is sold or given to a third party and is surface-applied must meet application setbacks established in the law.
Maps, Publications, Fact Sheets and other information
- Animal Feeding Operation Permits and Regulations in Missouri, Fact Sheet--PUB2351
- Animal Feeding Operations GIS Map Viewer
- USDA-NRCS EQIP Website
- Requirements and Best Management Practices for Temporary Stockpiles of Poultry Litter and Other Dry Process Waste
General CAFO Permits
- Form W - Application for Operating Permit, Form 780-2112
- Form F - Application for Construction Permit, Form 780-0725
- Form H - Termination of a General Permit, Form 780-1409
- CAFO Annual Report Form, Form 780-1953
- CAFO Record Keeping Forms Checklist Form 780-2153
- 2009 Nutrient Management Technical Standards
- Wet Weather Emergency Management Practices for CAFOs
- The Missouri Phosphorous Index (P-Index) is a tool used in the development of the CAFO Nutrient Management Plan to help identify fields that have a high probability of phosphorus loss in surface water runoff. This index was developed by the University of Missouri Extension. The latest version of the P-Index may be downloaded here. In addition, the University also developed a guide for using the P-Index, which may be downloaded here.
CAFO Statutes and Regulations
- Missouri Revised Statutes (640.700 - 640.758)
- Missouri Code of State Regulations
- State Regulation 10 CSR 20-6.300 Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations
- State Regulation 10 CSR 20-8.300 Manure Storage Design Regulation
- Federal Regulation 40 CFR Part 122
- Federal Regulation 40 CFR Part 412
Weather Related Websites
- DNR Monthly Precipitation Maps
- Missouri Climate Center Homepage
- High Plains Regional Climate Center
- University of Missouri Weather Stations
- National Weather Service Precipitation Maps
- CoCoRaHS Homepage
CAFO Related Websites
- University of Missouri-Extension’s Nutrient Management Website
- EPA CAFO Homepage
- National University Extension Homepage
Other Relevant Websites
- DNR Soil and Water Conservation Program
- MDC Private Landowner webpage
- Missouri Natural Resources Conservation Service
- University of Missouri-Extension Commercial Agriculture Program
- EPA Region 7
- CARES Map room
- DNR GIS Map viewer