Lone Star Industries Inc. dba Buzzi Unicem USA
EPA ID# MOD981127319
MoDNR Contact: Nathan Kraus, PE, 573-751-3154 or 800-361-4827
Facility Contact: Bradley Meyr, 573-335-8878
Last Updated: Jan. 30, 2020
- Former Company Name: The Marquette Co.
- Type of Facility: Permitted Commercial Hazardous Waste Treatment and Storage.
- Wastes Handled: “Characteristic” hazardous waste as well as various F-, K-, P-, and U-listed hazardous wastes as specified in the Part A permit application.
- Treatment Methods: Tank treatment and cement kiln.
- Location of hard copies of hazardous waste permit application, Part I and Part II Permits, modification requests, reports, etc. and supporting documents:
Final Part I Permit Issued: On Jan. 30, 2020, the department issued a final Missouri Hazardous Waste Management Facility Part I Permit for the Lone Star Industries Inc. facility, effective immediately. Any parties adversely affected or aggrieved by the department’s decision to issue the final Part I Permit, or specific conditions of the final Part I Permit, may be entitled to pursue an appeal before the Administrative Hearing Commission by filing a written petition by March 2, 2020, as more fully described on page 6 of the final Part I Permit.
Lone Star has been operating the site under a department-issued Part I Permit and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-issued Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Part II Permit. On July 16, 2008, Lone Star submitted a permit application to the department and EPA, to renew its existing hazardous waste permits. After a through technical review of the permit application and opportunity for public comment on a draft Part I Permit, the department issued a final Part I Permit. The final Part I Permit allows Lone Star to continue storing and treating hazardous waste, as well as add new hazardous waste units. In addition to its current operations, Lone Star requested to add one hazardous waste container storage area, with a capacity of 120,000 gallons; one 180,000-gallon hazardous waste storage/blend tank; one 90,000-gallon wash tank; four miscellaneous hazardous waste treatment units; one railcar wash unit; and three bulk container fluidization units, with a combined capacity of 210,000 gallons per day. Lone Star also requested to increase the drum processing unit’s capacity by 13,000 gallons per day.
EPA is in the process of preparing a draft Part II Permit; however, it is not ready for public review and comment. The public can review and copy paper copies of the final Part I Permit and supporting documents at the Cape Girardeau Public Library, 711 N. Clark St., Cape Girardeau (during normal business hours) or agency locations above.
The Lone Star Industries Inc. site is located on about 2,023 acres at 2524 S. Sprigg St. in Cape Girardeau. The Harrison Interests began operating a cement plant at the site in 1910. By 1923, the facility was purchased by The Marquette Co., who immediately began a major improvement project. In 1957, The Marquette Co. installed a new “wet process” plant at the site. In 1977, designs began for construction of a “dry process” preheater/precalciner plant to replace the existing wet process plant. The new plant, which is more energy efficient, was put into operation in April 1981. In April 1982, Lone Star Industries Inc. acquired The Marquette Co. and the Cape Girardeau plant. The Marquette Co. and Lone Star merged into a single corporation, Lone Star Industries Inc., in 1987. Dyckerhoff Inc. acquired Lone Star in 1999 and Buzzi Unicem, a majority stockholder of Dyckerhoff, took over operation of the company in January 2004.
Lone Star, doing business as (dba) Buzzi Unicem USA, currently operates a dry process rotary cement kiln with a four-stage preheater and a precalciner. The kiln produces clinker, the main ingredient in Portland cement. The cement production process involves crushing and grinding raw material; such as limestone, fireclay, and shale; into a fine dust. Lone Star feeds the raw material, in dry powder form, into a preheater/precalciner tower, which is made up of a series of cyclones. As the powder slowly falls through the cyclones, it is mixed with increasingly hot gasses from the kiln. The powder enters the kiln when it has been heated to a point to start the chemical reaction that makes clinker. The clinker is then ground with gypsum to make cement. A byproduct of the cement production process is a fine chalky powder waste known as cement kiln dust. Lone Star regularly tests the dust to make sure that it is exempt from being classified as a hazardous waste. The dust is placed in on-site landfills.
Lone Star uses mainly coal to heat their kiln system. To supplement its fuel needs, Lone Star also uses non-hazardous waste fuels, such as shredded plastics, sawdust and used oil, and solid and liquid hazardous wastes fuels. Lone Star is permitted to use hazardous waste fuel in both the rotary kiln and calciner portions of the kiln system. Lone Star has been using specific types of hazardous waste as a fuel since April 1992. Most of the hazardous waste comes from off-site hazardous waste generators or third party hazardous waste blenders or brokers. Lone Star receives the hazardous waste in bulk tanker trucks and 55-gallon drums. The liquid hazardous wastes are “blended” with other hazardous waste to achieve the desired characteristics, such as BTU value and metals and chlorine content. The resulting wastes are stored in tanks until they are used as liquid fuel.
Lone Star currently operates four hazardous waste container storage areas: the bulk truck unloading area, with a capacity of 30,000, and three areas located in the container storage building, with a total maximum capacity of 80,960 gallons. Lone Star is permitted to build a south railcar unloading area, which will have a maximum capacity o f 120,000 gallons. Lone Star also operates a tank farm consisting of six 40,000-gallon hazardous waste storage/blend tanks, one 180,000-gallon hazardous waste storage/blend tank, two 150,000-gallon hazardous waste burn tanks, one 1,100-gallon disperser tank and one 90,000-gallon wash tank. Lone Star stores and treats characteristic hazardous waste and various F-, K-, P-, and U-listed hazardous wastes, as specified in their Part A permit application.
According to applicable state and federal hazardous waste laws and regulations, all hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities are required to investigate and clean up hazardous waste releases at their facility resulting from present and past hazardous waste handling practices. In 1993, PRC Environmental Management Inc. performed a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, or RCRA, Facility Assessment for the site, on behalf of EPA. The assessment was conducted to identify and gather information on potential or actual releases of hazardous waste and hazardous constituents to the environment. The 1993 RCRA Facility Assessment Report identified 56 solid waste management units and seven areas of concern; of which 15 solid waste management units and 4 areas of concern required more investigation.
In response to the assessment, Lone Star investigated the solid waste management units and areas of concern with department oversight. The results of these activities are documented in a Solid Waste Management Unit, Corrective Action Evaluation Report, dated April 1995, and follow-up Summary Report Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern, dated Aug. 27, 1996. Based on review of these documents, the department determined that all issues associated with the solid waste management units and areas of concern had been adequately addressed and no further corrective action was necessary at that time. Lone Star continues to operate, monitor and maintain the cement kiln dust landfill.
When EPA implemented the federal hazardous waste laws under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1980, all existing facilities that treated, stored or disposed hazardous waste in a way that would require a hazardous waste permit were required to notify EPA and apply for the permit or close those operations. Because of the large number of existing facilities, Congress set up requirements that allowed these facilities to operate temporarily under “interim status” until it received its permit. The Lone Star Industries facility was granted interim status.
Lone Star currently is operating under two hazardous waste permits, originally issued in 1999. The department reissued the Missouri Hazardous Waste Management Facility Part I Permit, effective Jan. 30, 2020. EPA is in the process of reissuing the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Part II Permit; however, the draft Part II Permit is not ready for public review and comment. These permits allow Lone Star to receive and store liquid and solid hazardous waste in tanks and containers, mix hazardous waste to meet fuel specifications and burn hazardous waste-derived fuel in their rotary cement kiln. The regulated units consist of 5 hazardous waste container storage areas, 11 hazardous waste storage and treatment tanks, 5 miscellaneous hazardous waste treatment units, processing equipment and truck unloading facilities. These permits also require corrective action in the event there is a hazardous waste release to the environment.