EPA ID# MOD000823252

MoDNR Contact: Matt Barton, 573-751-3128 or 800-361-4827
Facility Contact: Genevieve Sutton, 573-244-8107
Last Updated: March 20, 2019

  • Former Company Name: Viburnum Mine/Mill Facility #28.
  • Type of Facility: Remediation Waste Management Site.
  • Wastes Handled: Lead-contaminated soils, sediments and other lead-impacted materials.
  • Treatment and Disposal Methods: Land disposal.
  • Location of hard copies of hazardous waste permit application, Part I and Part II Permits, modification requests, reports, etc. and supporting documents:

Current Activities

Doe Run is currently staging, treating and disposing remediation waste at the Doe Run Viburnum facility under a department-issued Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The public can review and copy paper copies of all RAPs, Orders, reports and supporting documents at the agency locations above.

The Viburnum Mine/Mill Facility #28 is located on about 250 acres at 500 Casteel Dr. in Viburnum. The Viburnum facility is owned and managed by Doe Run and is currently a non-operating lead mine with a collection of lead mill tailings piles. Mine tailings disposal at the Old Viburnum Tailings Impoundment stopped in 1975, and continued at the New Viburnum Tailings Impoundment until 2000. The mine tailings piles are permitted by the department, under the Missouri Metallic Minerals Waste Management Act, Permit MM-008.

Southeast Missouri is recognized widely as a center for lead mining, milling and smelting. Lead has been mined in southeast Missouri since before 1700. The entire region, referred to as the Southeast Missouri Lead District, includes the Fredericktown area, Old Lead Belt and Viburnum Trend (New Lead Belt). The Washington County Barite Sub-District within the Old Lead Belt covered over 250 square miles, with the remaining Southeast Missouri Lead District encompassing over 400 square miles within the eastern Ozark Mountains. The Viburnum Trend is a south-trending ore deposit that occupies an approximately 40-mile stretch between the towns of Viburnum and Corridon, and includes Crawford, Washington, Iron, Dent, Reynolds and Shannon counties. All lead currently produced in Missouri, and about 80 percent of America’s total lead production, comes from the Viburnum Trend. The Viburnum Mine/Mill Facility #28 is located within the Viburnum Trend.

In the late 1990’s, the Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) conducted a study to determine if lead-mining wastes used in highway asphalt pavement posed a risk to persons living near those highways. MoDOT sampling identified high lead contamination along local highways within the Viburnum Trend, built both with and without lead-mining wastes in the asphalt. Due to the accessibility of the smelters, along with the many lead mills in the area, the roadways between the various mines, mills and smelters are heavily trafficked by haul trucks carrying lead ore concentrate. MoDOT began to suspect other potential sources of lead along the highways, including transportation spill incidents.

In 2001, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources discovered high lead concentrations along the haul routes in and around the Herculaneum lead smelter. Over the years, these roads became contaminated with lead ore dust blown out of trailers used to haul the lead ore concentrate. Due to the potential for high contamination levels along other haul routes, the department began investigating the haul routes within the Viburnum Trend. Lead-contaminated soil was found in residential yards and along roadways throughout the Viburnum Trend, including sections of highways within Dent, Iron and Reynolds counties. During the haul roads investigation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discovered a child living in the Middlebrook Trailer Park had elevated blood lead levels. The Middlebrook Trailer Park sits on the location of a former loading facility for lead concentrate from the Viburnum Trend Lead Mining District. Doe Run completed the soil removal at the Middlebrook Trailer Park (Middlebrook Railhead site). Doe Run is currently removing lead-contaminated soils, sediments and other lead-impacted materials from residential yards and child high-use areas located along the haul roads (Viburnum Trend Haul Roads site) and around the City of Viburnum (St. Joe Minerals site). These activities are regulated under Administrative Orders, issued by EPA, under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Doe Run will also be removing lead-contaminated soils, sediments and other lead-impacted materials from properties and child high-use areas near the Buick Smelter, also owned and operated by Doe Run. The Buick Smelter removals will occur as a part of Doe Run's state Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-equivalent corrective action activities.

After removal, the lead-contaminated waste (remediation waste) is transported to Doe Run's Viburnum facility for storage and staging. Under state and federal regulations, lead-contaminated waste that fails the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure is classified as hazardous waste (D008). Doe Run samples and analyzes the waste and, if found to be nonhazardous for lead, it is placed directly onto the lead tailings piles. If the remediation waste fails the test for lead, it is treated until it meets applicable Land Disposal Restriction standards and then placed on the tailings piles. The nonhazardous and treated waste serves as a protective soil cap, to isolate the lead-contaminated tailings from the environment and promote plant growth. Covering and vegetating the tailings piles helps minimize the risk of releasing potentially harmful tailings to the environment and reduces the potential for lead exposure to humans.

Doe Run is currently staging, treating and disposing remediation waste at the Doe Run Viburnum facility under a department-issued Remedial Action Plan (RAP), issued Feb. 20, 2019. The department-issued RAP replaced and updated a 2006 EPA-issued RAP. Under the EPA-issued RAP, Doe Run was allowed to transport, treat and dispose up to 100,000 tons of remediation waste on a lead tailings pile, as protective cap material. The department-issued RAP allows Doe Run to dispose up to 413,000 cubic yards (yd3) of remediation waste at its Viburnum facility, of which about 23,000 yd3 of material was already staged at the Viburnum facility under the EPA-issued RAP. An estimated 390,000 yd3 of additional material will be removed from the Viburnum Trend Haul Roads, St. Joe Minerals and Middlebrook Railhead sites and the Viburnum city sanitary lagoons.