The Toxic Substance Control Act, also known as TSCA (pronounced "tos-ca"), was passed by Congress in 1976. This Act gave EPA the ability to track, test and regulate all industrial chemicals produced or imported into the United States. Many thousands of chemicals and products are developed each year with unknown toxic or dangerous characteristics. TSCA requires any chemical that reaches the consumer marketplace be tested for possible toxic effects. EPA can then control these chemicals as necessary to protect human health and the environment. EPA can also ban the manufacture and import of chemicals that pose an unreasonable risk.

Additional amendments were added to TSCA in July 1979. These amendments banned the production and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyl’s, also known as PCBs. The amendments also included details for labeling and disposing of PCBs.

The Missouri Hazardous Waste Management Law combines these federal requirements with other requirements that Missouri has added. The law requires all commercial PCB facilities in Missouri obtain a hazardous waste permit from the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. The department's Hazardous Waste Program inspects these facilities to make sure they are following TSCA requirements. The department must also keep an updated list of all commercial PCB facilities in the state.