Solid Waste Management Program
Air Sampling - Bridgeton Sanitary Landfill
Updated May 16, 2013
Enhanced Air Sampling and Monitoring During Construction at Bridgeton Landfill
These air sampling and monitoring activities are in addition to the air monitoring being conducted using the department’s AreaRae system.
Beginning on May 20 (weather dependent) and continuing until the RCP abandonment is complete, the department’s contractor will conduct four-hour air samplings at locations outside the permitted boundary of the landfill during each RCP’s abandonment. (A total of six sampling events.) A map will be generated each day samples are collected reflecting locations based upon weather condition. These events include sampling for VOCs, reduced sulfur compounds and aldehydes. Daily monitoring events will continue to occur on a scheduled path twice per day and will be expanded to include additional monitoring cycles at downwind locations during construction activity. During the week of May 29, a comprehensive sampling event is planned.
April 22, 2013 - Weekly sampling events begin and will continue through completion of the interim cap on the south quarry. Once per week, the department’s contractor conducts a four-hour sampling of two upwind and two downwind locations outside the permitted boundary of the landfill. The event includes VOCs, reduced sulfur compounds and aldehydes. These events are planned to coincide with construction activity at the landfill.
Immediate Sampling Events - Exact locations are determined by a triggering event and local weather conditions. These events are similar to weekly sampling events, the department’s contractor conducts a four-hour sampling of two upwind and two downwind locations. The immediate sampling event provides data to evaluate differences in concentrations that occur due to an unexpected event at the permitted facility. These sampling events will include the same compounds as the weekly sampling events.
April 19, 2013 - Daily Monitoring Events begin and will continue through completion of the interim cap on the south quarry. The department’s contractor is conducting air monitoring at a minimum of 12 locations using a hand-held hydrogen-sulfide detector, benzene detector and an odor detector. Sampling occurs around the perimeter of Bridgeton Sanitary Landfill at least two times per day and as needed, based upon community complaints received between the two daily cycles.
April 16, 2013 - A comprehensive sampling event began on this date and completion has been postponed due to weather and construction delays. Work on this initial comprehensive sampling event was completed the week of May 6. The department's contractor conducted sampling and the laboratory is currently analyzing 183 compounds from upwind, downwind, source gas and on-site locations including the landfill's gas collection system.
Two of the sampling locations were close to the perimeter of the landfill, in order to evaluate emissions immediately upwind and downwind of the landfill. Additionally, the department's contractor collected eight samples for odor analysis by the St. Croix olfactory method (ASTM-E679). A comprehensive sampling event is also planned during the RCP abandonment construction activity. Photo: Air sampling port (F3) on Apr. 16, 2013 after morning downpour.
The following documents provide additional details about the enhanced air sampling and monitoring events.
Air Sampling Results
The department continues to forward all air sampling results to the Department of Health and Senior Services so it can evaluate potential public health concerns related to air quality. Air sampling results that have been collected have been scientifically validated and are posted below. DHSS will also post the health analysis on its website at health.mo.gov/bridgeton. These air sampling results are in reverse chronological order with the newest appearing at the top of the list. Watch this page for new data as it becomes available.
Description of Air Sampling Activities
Data for April 23 through May 3, 2013, was provided by the department from the daily monitoring events and continued air sampling using the AreaRae system to the Department of Health and Senior Services for their evaluation. (Note: April 23 is included in this and the just prior data set.)
- Daily Air Monitoring Report – April 23 through May 3, 2013.
- Hourly Average Meteorological Data – April 23 through April 30, 2013.
- Hourly Average Meteorological Data –May 1 through May 3, 2013.
- Air Sampling Summary Data using AreaRae – April 23 through April 30, 2013.
- Air Sampling Summary Data using AreaRae – May 1 through May 3, 2013.
DHSS review of air monitoring data from the Bridgeton Landfill area, April 23 – May 3, 2013 –The Department of Health and Senior Services (DHSS) has reviewed air quality screening data collected by the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) at Bridgeton Landfill between April 23 and May 3, 2013. On April 23, DNR began routine, twice daily, surveillance of hydrogen sulfide, benzene, and odor levels around the entire periphery of the landfill. In addition, DNR has provided continuous monitoring of reduced sulfur compounds (reported as hydrogen sulfide), sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at three fixed locations. DHSS has reviewed both sets of data to identify potential public health concerns.
Reduced Sulfur Compounds
Benzene, Total VOCs and Carbon Monoxide
Data for March 16 through April 23, 2013, was provided by the department from the new daily monitoring events and continued air sampling using the AreaRae system to the Department of Health and Senior Services for their evaluation.
- Daily Routine Odor Monitoring Path Map.
- Daily Air Monitoring Report – April 19 through April 23, 2013.
- Hourly Average Meteorological Data – April1 through April 23, 2013.
- Air Sampling Summary Data using AreaRae – April 1 through April 23, 2013.
- Air Sampling Summary Data using AreaRae - March 16 through March 31, 2013.
DHSS review of air monitoring data from the Bridgeton Landfill area, March 16 - April 23, The Department of Health and Senior Services (DHSS) has reviewed air quality screening data collected by the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) at Bridgeton Landfill between March 16 and April 23, 2013. DNR has performed continuous air monitoring at three locations near the landfill since mid-February. DHSS reviews the monitoring data to identify potential public health concerns associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO) in ambient air near the landfill.
Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbon Monoxide
As of March 19, as part of the next phase of air sampling, the department has retained an expert contractor to assist with air sampling and laboratory analytical services. The analysis of data provided to date indicates that certain compounds warrant additional enhanced sampling and analysis which the department’s contractor will provide. This is necessary as the continuous screening equipment capabilities are limited and groups similar compounds into a single reported value. As examples, the reporting of hydrogen sulfide includes other reduced sulfur compounds and the reporting of volatile organic compounds groups many hydrocarbons together. In future, laboratory samples will be collected to separate individual compounds through enhanced sampling and analysis to determine the exact constituent(s) of concern and appropriate screening level(s).
- Air Sampling Location Map using AreaRae – Feb. 28 - March 15.
- Air Sampling Summary Data using AreaRae – Feb. 28 – March 15.
- Air Sampling Summary Data using VIPER® – Feb 13 – Feb. 28.
On March 19, DHSS review of air monitoring data from the Bridgeton Landfill area, February 13 – March 15, 2013, the Department of Health and Senior Services (DHSS) has reviewed the air quality screening data from the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) for the Bridgeton Landfill for the period of February 13 through March 15, 2013. DHSS previously recommended long-term air monitoring, which DNR provided with this screening data. The air monitoring was carried out continuously, 24 hours a day, at three monitoring locations near the landfill.
DHSS reviewed the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The average CO, VOC and SO2 levels were not identified at concentrations of health concern.
In the case of hydrogen sulfide, the screening data identified a potential public health concern that warranted further evaluation. For a combined total of three to four hours, on the afternoons of February 14, 23 and 24, average concentrations of hydrogen sulfide at the air monitoring location near Hussmann Corporation (12999 St. Charles Rock Road) exceeded a health-based comparison value for short term exposures (1 to 14 days) but were not in excess of public health protection guidelines for exposures lasting less than 24 hours. Although it is not possible to draw definitive conclusions from this screening data, DHSS deems that additional monitoring or other actions are warranted.
Exposure to elevated levels of hydrogen sulfide can cause headache, irritation to eyes, nose or throat, and may cause difficulty breathing especially for persons with asthma or other chronic respiratory conditions. In fact, any intense odors can have public health effects on both quality of life and well-being, particularly for sensitive individuals. Symptoms generally associated with offensive odors typically disappear once the odors dissipate.
DNR will continue increased air sampling, as recommended by DHSS, to allow for more definite conclusions to be drawn regarding any potential health risks of public exposure to chemicals in the landfill gases.
During periods of objectionable odor, sensitive individuals and persons with chronic respiratory diseases should limit time spent outdoors and seek medical advice for any acute symptoms.
On March 13, the department collected SUMMA® canister air samples in the vicinity of the Bridgeton Sanitary Landfill following elevated odors generated during gas extraction well drilling activities. Samples were collected at three locations. The department shared the air sampling data with the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services for further evaluation. DHSS' review is included below.
DHSS review data from March 13 air sampling at Bridgeton Landfill – the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services (DHSS) has reviewed the air sample data from the March 13, 2013 sampling event at Bridgeton Landfill. Timed (5-hour) samples were collected from two downwind locations, during a period of medium-strong odor emissions, between the landfill and a residential area. One sample was collected in an upwind location.
DHSS specifically reviewed the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air samples. Of the 62 VOCs targeted in the air sample analysis, 8 VOCs were detected in the downwind samples. None of these VOC concentrations exceeded appropriate health-based screening values for either short-term or chronic exposure in ambient air. As a result, DHSS did not identify VOC concentrations of public health concern in the data from this sampling event. DHSS recommends continued air monitoring and sampling to identify any potential health risks of public exposure to landfill gases.
During Feb. 2013, the department collected continuous screening data using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's VIPER® communications package with existing department air sampling equipment. The data collected by this system was stored on EPA servers and provided to the department on Feb. 28. There were more than 5.5 million records collected. The data was then provided to the Department of Health and Senior Services for analysis, which is included above.
- Air Sampling Location Map using VIPER® - Feb. 13.
- Air Sampling Summary Data using VIPER® – Feb 13 – Feb. 28.
On Feb. 15, the department performed air sampling using SUMMA® canisters in response to odors associated with drilling of a new gas extraction well. While drilling the gas extraction well, the drill encountered a pocket of pressurized landfill gas below the ground's surface at about a 100 foot depth. The presence of such a pocket of landfill gas in a landfill experiencing a subsurface smoldering event is not unexpected. In this instance, the drill rig was affected requiring repair that resulted in a short-term increase in the intensity of odors. When Bridgeton/Republic notified the department of the increase in odors, the air sampling was performed. The air samples collected included two downwind locations, one of which was near a residential area approximately 1,500 feet from the landfill. The third sample was collected from an upwind location.
DHSS review of air monitoring data from the Bridgeton Landfill area from Feb. 15 sampling event, the Department of Health and Senior Services reviewed the air sample data and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ambient air samples and found that the analyzed gas concentrations did not exceed a level of concern for public health.
On Feb. 4 and 5, the department also performed air sampling using SUMMA® canisters to identify possible odor constituents and levels of volatile organic compounds. Cartridges with sampling pumps were used to collect samples that were analyzed for aldehydes. Air samples downwind of the landfill were collected from six locations in the vicinity of the landfill, including locations in a residential area.
DHSS review of air monitoring data from the Bridgeton Landfill area from Feb. 4-5 sampling event, the Department of Health and Senior Services reviewed the air sample data including the concentrations of 62 volatile organic compounds and 12 aldehydes in the air. Department of Health and Senior Services analysis found the analyzed gas concentrations did not exceed a level of concern for public health.
On Saturday, Feb. 2, 2013, the department employed air sampling equipment at six locations around Bridgeton Sanitary Landfill to assess the current air quality. Continuous air sampling was conducted from early morning to late evening using an AreaRAE system. This system is equipped with a wireless radio frequency modem that allows data transmissions to a remotely based controller. The multi-sensor system is equipped for photoionization detection of volatile organic compounds, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide and gamma radiation.
DHSS review of air monitoring data from the Bridgeton Landfill area from the Feb. 2 sampling event, the Department of Health and Senior Services reviewed the air quality screening data including levels of carbon monoxide, total volatile organic compounds and hydrogen sulfide. A review of the air quality data found that gas concentrations did not exceed a level of concern for public health. Department of Health and Senior Services also reviewed the gamma radiation readings detected by the Department of Natural Resources and collected samples from the air to provide additional details. The real time radiation sampling by DNR did not detect gamma radiation rates outside of normal levels. Laboratory analysis of the Department of Health and Senior Services samples by two different laboratories confirmed that no radioactivity was detected above normal background levels.
On Feb. 1, 2013, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources issued an Order to Republic, which owns Bridgeton, stating the department would immediately begin collecting air sampling data at the landfill. The Order also instructed the company to pay for costs associated with this data collection and to provide the department access to the facility property for data collection operations.
Previous Bridgeton/Republic Air Sampling
Bridgeton/Republic completed a comprehensive air sampling on Aug. 16 and 17, 2012 with Solid Waste Management Program staff overseeing and evaluating the sampling process. An air sampling report was submitted on Oct. 21, 2012 for Bridgeton/Republic by their contractor. The report characterizes the upwind, downwind and source air to view the report.