EPA ID# MOD030712822
- Former Company Name: Exide Corp.; Schuylkill Metals Corp.
- Type of Facility: Permitted Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal.
- Wastes Handled: Lead-bearing hazardous and non-hazardous wastes and spent lead acid batteries.
- Treatment and Disposal Methods: Land disposal and smelting.
- Location of hard copies of hazardous waste permit application, Part I and Part II Permits, modification requests, reports, etc. and supporting documents:
Exide is operating under two hazardous waste permits, which allow Exide to store whole batteries and hazardous waste in containers and containment buildings, treat hazardous waste in a stabilization unit and dispose of hazardous waste produced by Exide in an on-site landfill. Exide is also performing long-term monitoring and maintenance of a closed landfill and conductingcorrective action activities under those same permits. The status of Exide's post-closure and corrective action activities are described below. The public can review and copy paper copies of all permits, reports and supporting documents at the agency locations above.
Exide Technologies is located on about 360 acres at 25102 Holt 250 Road, 4 miles northwest of Forest City. Exide operates a secondary lead smelting plant, known as the Exide Technologies Canon Hollow Recycling Center, which has been operating since at least 1975. Schuylkill Metals Corp., the original facility owners, became a division of Exide Corp. in 1996. In 2000, Exide Corp. changed its name to Exide Technologies.
Exide stores and recycles lead-acid batteries and other lead-bearing raw materials. Exide disassembles the lead-acid batteries and separates the plastic case material, sulfuric acid and lead-bearing components. Exide ships the plastic case material off-site to a plastic recycler. The sulfuric battery acid is collected, filtered and shipped off-site as product. Exide uses four pot furnaces and a blast furnace to smelt the battery plates and other lead-bearing material into new metallic lead ingot. The final product, called secondary lead, is purchased by various manufacturers, re-melted and used in the production of new products.
Before 1983, waste battery acid went through neutralization and sedimentation in a series of concrete pits. The effluent, or wastewater, was then discharged into a series of four lagoons. In 1983, a wastewater treatment plant and an equalization lagoon were built and the four effluent lagoons were closed.
Before 1981, the waste smelter slag was stored in three slag storage areas. The rubber chips from the broken battery cases were stockpiled in the rubber chip storage area. Both areas were closed in 1981 when Landfill 1 was built. Landfill 1, which was closed in 1992, was used to dispose of smelter slag, dewatered waste treatment sludge and rubber battery case chips. Landfill 2, which began operating in 1991, is currently used for disposing of treated air pollution control scrubber sludge, wastewater sludge and waste materials identified in their permit application. Landfill 2 is designed for phased construction and use. Phase II construction is scheduled to begin in 2013. Phase III construction will begin as Phase II approaches capacity. Landfill 2 has an overall design capacity of 754,000 cubic yards.
Exide also currently operates one hazardous waste container storage area with a capacity of 187 cubic yards, one spent battery trailer parking area with a capacity of 330 short tons (one short ton equals 2,000 pounds), one spent whole battery storage and staging area with a capacity of 334 cubic yards and seven containment buildings with a combined capacity of 7,600 cubic yards. A battery storage building, with a capacity of 1,500 cubic yards, is scheduled to be built by 2014. Exide is allowed to treat hazardous waste, air pollution control scrubber sludge and wastewater sludge in a stabilization unit, which has a capacity of 10 short tons, or 20,000 pounds, per hour.
The storage and disassembly of the lead-acid batteries is regulated by Exide’s hazardous waste permits. The recycling of the sulfuric acid and lead-bearing materials is regulated by their Resource Recovery Certification.
The three slag storage areas and rubber chip storage area were closed in 1981. The rubber chips stockpile was removed from the rubber chip storage area and landfilled. The four effluent lagoons (surface impoundments) were closed in 1983. The contents of the lagoons were removed and treated in the wastewater treatment plant. The lagoons were then backfilled and asphalt-capped or reseeded.
Exide closed Landfill 1 in 1992. The department accepted Exide’s closure report and certification; however, because hazardous waste remained in place after closure, the area is also required to go through a period of post-closure care. As part of the post-closure care, Exide is required to maintain the integrity of the final cap and maintain and monitor the groundwater monitoring system.
All hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities are also required to investigate and clean up hazardous waste releases at their facility resulting from present and past hazardous waste handling practices. Exide is currently conducting Phase II of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, or RCRA, Facility Investigation to define the horizontal and vertical extent of any contamination. What, if any, corrective action, or cleanup, activities necessary will be based on the investigation results.
Exide is operating and conducting post-closure and corrective action activities under two hazardous waste permits, one issued by the department and one issued by EPA. The permits were first issued in 1990. The department reissued the Missouri Hazardous Waste Management Facility Part I Permit, effective Sept. 23, 2009. EPA reissued the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Part II Permit, effective Oct. 25, 2009. These permits allow Exide to continue storing whole batteries and hazardous waste in containers and containment buildings, treating hazardous waste in a stabilization unit and disposing of hazardous waste produced by Exide in an on-site landfill. The regulated units consist of three container storage areas, seven containment building areas, the stabilization unit and the on-site landfill. These permits also require post-closure care of a closed landfill and corrective action in the event there is a release of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents to the environment.
On Oct. 18, 2013, the department approved Exide's Class 2 Permit Modification request, allowing Exide to make changes throughout the facility’s hazardous waste storage and treatment areas to facilitate the addition of negative pressure requirements for the entire facility in response to the federal National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirements. On Oct. 26, 2015, the department approved Exide's Class 2 Permit Modification request, with changes and a conditional schedule of compliance, allowing Exide to increase the storage capacity of a containment building by 824 cubic yards, add a doorway and wall opening in the exterior walls of two containment buildings to accommodate a conveying system and correct and update the closure cost estimate. On March 22, 2016, the department approved Exide's Class 2 Permit Modification request, with conditions, allowing Exide to increase the treatment capacity of the stabilization unit and make physical changes to the Stabilization/Staging and Storage building.
Exide is also reclaiming lead through secondary lead smelting and acid through on-site collection under a U Resource Recovery Certification, RR0052, issued by the department on Dec. 7, 2012. The certification expired Dec. 7, 2014; however, the department is allowing Exide to continue resource recovery operations under their previous certification until the department issues a new certification. Exide submitted a renewal application, which the department is currently reviewing.